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An exciting point in the spread of Muslim world in the early period is the quickness of this distribution. In the early days of new religion the Arabian peoples were scattered ones who bowed a variety of objects. And in the beginning of 7th century these tribes, which lived generally in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, got suddenly arranged, moved to a new step of development and set up a new country - the Caliphate. For a short time they conquered large territories on several mainlands. It looks that all ran smoothly, but if you look closely, you will see a different picture.

The roots of the Caliphate started since the death of the Prophet, who founded a new religion - Islam. the early stage of this state is Rashidun Caliphate. Muslims think this period of the Rashidun Caliphate lasts over the early 5 rulers, and it is not transparent for us why they are more "Rashidun righteous" than future Caliphs. Immediately after Muhammad's death the following Caliph Abu Bakr met the difficulties. The new religion had not sit confidently in the minds of the Arabic people so almost all started to look towards new active prophets. Almost each tribe had a prophet, whom tribes were ready to listen to. Maybe if Muhammad had not appeared there, his role would be targeted by a few local competitors. The first Caliph had to conquer them. After several years of struggle, Abu Bakr died and gave the post of the ruler to his protégé - Umar. He is known for a variety of politic and administrative reforms, thus Umar set up the treasury, and some sort of parliament. During Umar's reign the Koran was eventually written and the Islamic calendar, started the Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina, was established. Umar had to contend with local renegades, but was able to expanded dramatically the lands of the Caliphate. It seems that due to his aggressive activity, the ruler was killed by a slave at the time of prayer.

Next caliph, Uthman, did not die by a natural death. In his 12-years-long rule opposition movement against Uthman increased, despite the success in the wars against neighbors. After several protests the opponents of the ruler rushed to Uthman's home and slaughtered him while he was reading the Koran. Usman's supporters decided to avenge for the assassinated Caliph and killed about 4,000 opponents. The new ruler, Ali, started military engagement with the protesters, which called the battle of the Camel. In a little while Ali was murdered by comrades disappointed with the split of the Islamic community. After that Muawiya, the last ruler of Rashidun Caliphate, bequeathed the post to his son, thus ending the Rashidun Caliphate and founding the next stage.

August 2017

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